Guide to Magellan Image Interpretation (NASA History Series)

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This is almost 45, pages of presumably uncensored text, from both air to ground transmissions and onboard voice recorders.

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The original URL for this material went dead a couple years ago, but is now online at a new address. Some of the books below are Adobe. If you would like to read NASA's. HTTrack also works well with groups of. The three Xs flew to over , feet, and exceeded Mach 6, while exceeding Mach 5 on fifty flights. The Apollo Spacecraft: A Chronology , SP , dates every step in the design, development, construction, and use of the Apollo lunar spacecraft, from ideas in to the final lunar landing in He correctly surmised this was due to the scattering of sunlight in a dense atmosphere.

In December , American astronomer Chester Smith Lyman made observations of Venus from the Yale Observatory , where he was on the board of managers. While observing the planet, he spotted a complete ring of light around the dark side of the planet when it was at inferior conjunction, providing further evidence for an atmosphere. The first UV observations were carried out in the s, when Frank E. Ross found that UV photographs revealed considerable detail, which appeared to be the result of a dense, yellow lower atmosphere with high cirrus clouds above it.

Spectroscopic observations in the early 20th century also gave the first clues about the Venusian rotation. Vesto Slipher tried to measure the Doppler shift of light from Venus. After finding that he could not detect any rotation, he surmised the planet must have a very long rotation period.

Later work in the s showed the rotation was retrograde.

Tag: Magellan spacecraft

Radar observations of Venus were first carried out in the s, and provided the first measurements of the rotation period, which were close to the modern value. Radar observations in the s, using the radio telescope at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico revealed details of the Venusian surface for the first time — such as the presence of the Maxwell Montes mountains. The first attempts to explore Venus were mounted by the Soviets in the s through the Venera Program. The first spacecraft, Venera-1 also known in the west as Sputnik-8 was launched on February 12th, By mid-may, it was estimated that the probe had passed within , km 62, miles of Venus.

The United States launched the Mariner 1 probe on July 22nd, , with the intent of conducting a Venus flyby; but here too, contact was lost during launch. This put an end all speculation that the planet might harbor life. The spacecraft cash-landed on Venus on March 1st, , and was the first man-made object to enter the atmosphere and strike the surface of another planet.

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Unfortunately, its communication system failed before it was able to return any planetary data. On October 18th, , the Soviets tried again with the Venera-4 spacecraft.

After reaching the planet, the probe successfully entered the atmosphere and began studying the atmosphere. The probe managed to collect information on the composition, pressure and density of the Venusian atmosphere, which was then analyzed alongside the Venera-4 data by a Soviet-American science team during a series of symposiums. Venera-5 and Venera-6 were launched in January of , and reached Venus on 16th and 17th of May.

While entering the atmosphere on December 15th, , the probe crashed on the surface, apparently due to a ripped parachute. The Soviets launched three more Venera probes between and The first landed on Venus on July 22nd, , and managed to transmit data for 50 minutes. On November 3rd, , the United States had sent the Mariner 10 probe on a gravitational slingshot trajectory past Venus on its way to Mercury.

The images, which were the best to date, showed the planet to be almost featureless in visible light; but revealed never-before-seen details about the clouds in ultraviolet light. The first was the Pioneer Venus Orbiter , which inserted into an elliptical orbit around Venus on December 4th, , where it studied its atmosphere and mapped the surface for a period of 13 days. The second, the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe , released a total of four probes which entered the atmosphere on December 9th, , returning data on its composition, winds and heat fluxes.

Four more Venera lander missions took place between the late 70s and early 80s. Venera 11 and Venera 12 detected Venusian electrical storms; and Venera 13 and Venera 14 landed on the planet on March 1st and 5th, , returning the first color photographs of the surface. The Venera program came to a close in October , when Venera 15 and Venera 16 were placed in orbit to conduct mapping of the Venusian terrain with synthetic aperture radar.

Imaging Radar in Archaeological Investigations: An Image Processing Perspective | SpringerLink

In , the Soviets participated in a collaborative venture with several European states to launch the Vega Program. While en route to Halley on June 11th and 15th, the two Vega spacecraft dropped Venera-style probes supported by balloons into the upper atmosphere — which discovered that it was more turbulent than previously estimated, and subject to high winds and powerful convection cells. In , at the end of its mission, Magellan was sent to its destruction into the atmosphere of Venus to quantify its density.

Venus was observed by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft during flybys on their respective missions to the outer planets, but Magellan was the last dedicated mission to Venus for over a decade. The Venus Express , a probe designed and built by the European Space Agency, successfully assumed polar orbit around Venus on April 11th, This probe conducted a detailed study of the Venusian atmosphere and clouds, and discovered an ozone layer and a swirling double-vortex at the south pole before concluding its mission in December of The craft was launched on May 20th, , but the craft failed to enter orbit in December Its main engine is still offline, but its controllers will attempt to use its small attitude control thrusters to make another orbital insertion attempt on December 7th, The probe would be equipped with a core sampler to drill into the surface and study pristine rock samples not weathered by the harsh surface conditions.

The Venera-D spacecraft is a proposed Russian space probe to Venus, which is scheduled to be launched around This mission will conduct remote-sensing observations around the planet and deploy a lander, based on the Venera design, capable of surviving for a long duration on the surface.


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Because of its proximity to Earth, and its similarity in size, mass and composition, Venus was once believed to hold life. In fact, the idea of Venus being a tropical world persisted well into the 20th century, until the Venera and Mariner programs demonstrated the absolute hellish conditions that actually exist on the planet. Nevertheless, it is believed that Venus may once have been much like Earth, with a similar atmosphere and warm, flowing water on its surface.


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  • However, owing to the runaway greenhouse effect and the lack of a magnetic field, this water disappeared many billions of years ago. Still, there are those who believed that Venus could one day support human colonies. Currently, the atmospheric pressure near to the ground is far too extreme for settlements to be built on the surface. In addition, proposals have been made suggesting the Venus should be terraformed. These have ranged from installing a huge space-shade to combat the greenhouse effect, to crashing comets into the surface to blow the atmosphere off.

    Other ideas involve converting the atmosphere using calcium and magnesium to sequester the carbon away. From being a central to our mythology and the first star we saw in the morning and the last one we saw at night , Venus has since gone on to become a subject of fascination for astronomers and a possible prospect for off-world real estate. We have written many interesting articles about Venus here at Universe Today.

    But once astronomers looked at it seriously in the past half-century or so, a lot of contrasts emerged. The biggest one — Venus is actually a hothouse planet with a runaway greenhouse effect, making it inhospitable to life as we know it. Here are some more interesting facts about Venus. Journal of Field Archaeology 28 — Lee, J. Remote Sensing Reviews — Lillesand, T. Madsen, S. McCauley, J. Science 3 — McHugh, W. Geoarchaeology 3 1 :1— Antiquity — Moik, J. Digital Processing of Remotely Sensed Images. Moore, E. Journal of Southeast Asian Architecture — Journal of Sophia Asian Studies — Unpublished Manuscript.

    This volume. Olsen, J.

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    National Geographic Society Grant National Geographic Magazine September — Owen, L. Journal of Quaternary Science 12 3 — Pope, K.


    • Starry visions, lunar dreams: space exploration in pictures.
    • Eine kurze Geschichte der Zeit (German Edition).
    • Handbook of Alcoholic Beverages: Technical, Analytical and Nutritional Aspects;
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    • Remote Sensing of the Environment — Robinson, C. Roth, L. Sabins, F. Freeman, New York. Schaber, G. Sever, T. Liverman, E. Moran, R. Rindfuss, and P. Ancient Mesoamerica — Siemens, A. American Antiquity — Singhroy, V.