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Zola , L'Assommoir, , p. On oubliera.
Le héraut d'armes et la tradition littéraire chevaleresque - Persée
Les voiles de deuil, comme des feuilles mortes, tomberont. Proust , Sodome et Gomorrhe, , p. Voici mon secret. L'essentiel est invisible pour les yeux. Mais tu ne me regardes pas Cocteau , Les Parents terribles, , I, 4, p. Gide , Journal, , p. Ces termes sont assez commodes. Pascal, par L. Du Bos , Journal, , pp.
Dans la lang. Martin du Gard , Devenir, , p. Augier , Philiberte, , II, p. En accord avec sa nature profonde. Bourget , Essais de psychol. Dans tous ces syntagmes et loc. Flaubert , Correspondance, , pp. Du Bos , Journal, , p. Chez les aut. Celui qui sait attendrir sait tout. Lamartine , Les Confidences, Graziella , , p. En partic. Bourget , Le Disciple, , p. Psichari , Le Voyage du centurion, , pp. Le soleil d'un jour de juillet La conscience tranquille.
La main sur la conscience, en toute franchise cf. Cela est vrai pour quelques familles. Balzac , La Duchesse de Langeais, , p. Homme d'honneur. Le corps de Chopin Bien faits pour chevaucher de compagnie, fringants, rapides et sans peur Pesquidoux , Le Livre de raison, , p. Gautier , Le Capitaine Fracasse, , p. Sursum corda! As-tu des dents pour mordre? De nos jours, cette allus. Stendhal , Hist. Dans cette accept. Les lois Accepter, etc. Sand , Monsieur Sylvestre, , p. Faire qqc. Y mettre beaucoup d'ardeur. Pour l'expr. Montalembert , Hist. Verlaine , Romances sans paroles, , p. Dans certains ex.
Il voyait l'art allemand tout nu. Bousquet , Traduit du silence, , p. Les larmes cf. Lamartine , Les Confidences, Graziella, , p. Avoir qqc. Rougon, , p. Rostand , Cyrano de Bergerac, , I, 4, p. S'en donner etc. Dans les nombreux syntagmes ou loc. Localis [ er ] Amiel , Journal intime, , p.
Gautier , Albertus, , p. Musset , La Nuit de mai, , p. Genevoix , Raboliot, , p. Je l'aime beaucoup mieux quand je ne la vois pas que quand je la vois. En absence, mon imagination retranche ce qui la choque, ajoute quelque chose de ce qui manque, suppose ce qui lui convient. Constant , Journaux intimes, , p.
Qu'est-ce que cela fait? Cela vaut mieux que les grands torrents qui l'emportent. Flaubert , Correspondance, , p. Il me semble que je quitte la terre? Comme c'est doux! Maupassant , Contes et nouvelles, t. Tout cela palpitait entre ciel et terre. Je vous apporterais une grande passion physique, vous me la pardonneriez Si on nous fichait un peu la paix avec l' amour! Montherlant , Les Jeunes filles, , p.
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Such an expressive indication would be out of character in the stripped-down score known to us, but it describes well the sound Stravinsky wanted, clarifying the sound colour behind the abstract mezza voce in the final score at . The original idea from which the three-act scenario arose was no longer valid.
With the next version, as exemplified in FS-2b Figure 3 , Stravinsky thus moved definitively away from the firmly ethnographic representation of the wedding ritual in FS-1 towards a more abstract and symbolic Svadebka. The instrumentation of both versions is the same, however. Both are scored for an ensemble with two string. Stravinsky and Craft, Retrospectives and Conclusions, p.
Each quintet produces a distinct and unified sound colour, one percussive, the other smooth and continuous. The other instruments included are two flutes one performer doubling on piccolo , two oboes, one cor anglais and two clarinets one doubling on piccolo clarinet in D ; two French horns were added in the second version. The pairs of instruments the two oboes, for example play as though they constituted one collective instrument. Other instruments may have been planned, but these scores do not go beyond the opening episode; the percussion instruments notably had little significance in the first two versions.
Meanwhile, not a single known draft of the first two versions fits the recollections Stravinsky expressed so assuredly. Neither FS-1 nor FS-2b is dated, but it seems logical to suggest that Stravinsky had composed FS-1 by early October , when he went to Florence to meet Diaghilev; the composer most likely had something of Svadebka ready to play for him. Diaghilev had already been pushing the composer to finish, as this was to be the only new piece of Stravinsky for the Ballets Russes. That Svadebka would have been at the forefront of their considerations at the meeting therefore seems plausible.
Did they then discuss cutting out the first act, for which Stravinsky had no compositional ideas at all, and consider the possibility of a more manageable size of work in four tableaux? At any rate, FS-2b, with the new opening for the now reconfigured first act, was in all likelihood ready for the next meeting with Diaghilev in. Rome on 8 February , when Stravinsky played more of Svadebka. Diaghilev instantly fell in love with it. It is further contended that Stravinsky played the rest of the second tableau during his next meeting with Diaghilev in Milan on 1 April ; with two-thirds of the piece composed by midAugust, the entire work was nearly complete by the end of the year.
As indicated above, studying them has led me to believe that Stravinsky did not compose the work by advancing straightforwardly from beginning to end, but rather that he worked in a zigzag fashion. Sections composed with the original intention of being continuous would later be split by the insertion of other music; similarly, parts of the composition belonging to different tableaux could nevertheless be worked on simultaneously. Neither did Stravinsky compose Svadebka according to any single scenario; rather, he refined his plan as he worked, constantly re-thinking what he had already done.
Only by moving back and forth between episodes and tableaux, and by making adjustments between segments previously composed and segments newly conceived, did Stravinsky bring his creative conception to its final realisation. Circumstantial evidence suggests that beyond working out the details of the opening episode in FS-2b, by the time of his meeting with Diaghilev on 8 February in Rome, Stravinsky might have composed the first tableau up to  as in Prtc-PML or even to  as in two sketches in full score currently stored together with Prtc-PML , and he simultaneously considered some ideas for other episodes in the first, second and fourth tableaux.
This was version 3, initiated in the spring of , the only completed version of the work that predates the final one see Figure 5. Enchanted by the sound of the cimbalom, Stravinsky arranged to purchase the instrument, which he received presumably between February. Craft, vol. See all the accounts of the history of Les Noces, from C.
For example, there are sketches for , — and  in full score for the FS-2 ensemble, notably with timpani and later insertions of snippets for piano and, still later, cimbalom. In addition, several episodes from the first, second and fourth tableaux can be found among the sketches of various compositions completed between August and late January The composition was in four tableaux, with the first two tableaux defined as in the final work, and with the final scene — the young couple being led to the bedchamber — defined exactly as in the composition we know.
The only scene missing was the departure of the bride for church, the third tableau of the final score. That version includes twenty-seven wind instruments, fourteen of which are brass, all heavily involved, creating sonority at times resembling a wind band, particularly with tuba, keyed bugles and the B flat baritone on the instrumental roster. The two string quintets of versions 1 and 2 are reduced here to eight string instruments three violins, two violas, two cellos and a double bass , but the string section, too, is enriched by the new percussive colour of harp, piano and harpsichord probably used for the first time in a twentieth-century composition , and — above all — cimbalom.
The idea of the strings playing pizzicato against arco is retained in version 3, but the instruments are no longer sharply divided into two groups: the scoring often calls for divisi, and at times a single instrument functions as two different soloists.
He defined soloistic identity here not only by timbre, but also through the way an instrument contributed to the overall. The idea of soloistic scoring was of course not new for Stravinsky; he had already experimented with it in Petrushka and the Japanese Lyrics, not to mention all the previous instrumentations of Pribaoutki and Svadebka itself. In version 3, however, the principle finds the fullest and utmost heterogeneous realisation, the lavish sound of which appears even more vibrant and astonishing because it is so diametrically opposed to the austerity and homogeneity of the final product.
To keep the work and the spirit of the Ballets Russes active during the first wartime summer of , Diaghilev rented a large villa, Bellerive, in Ouchy, Lausanne, on Lake Geneva, where he reassembled a core group of Russian artists, painters and dancers, who rehearsed regularly and discussed new projects.
Le héraut d'armes et la tradition littéraire chevaleresque
At Bellerive, Diaghilev invited Natalia Goncharova to design the costumes and the sets for Svadebka, while he began thinking of Leonid Massine, then a young dancer, as a possible replacement for Nijinsky as the choreographer. Another idea, most likely initiated at Bellerive, was the unaccompanied chant for two solo basses in the second tableau at , the only unaccompanied passage in the whole work.
Presumably with Liturgie in mind, Stravinsky copied down from Oktoikh a Russian version of Byzantine Octoechos, The Book of Eight Echoi 37 one chant, Bogorodichen a hymn to the Mother of God in fifth glas echos and used it as the starting-point for composing —, a chant-like episode in the second tableau of Les Noces villageoises, as the composition became known towards the end of The longest fair copy in full score of version 3, FS-3c, goes. Renard was partially composed on the cimbalom. The cimbalom was also part of the eleven-instrument ensemble of Ragtime.
The non-linear process of composing Les Noces should be clear from this list and the previously stated considerations. It was the last time Diaghilev heard a note of Les Noces until April At the beginning of , Diaghilev went to America with the Ballets Russes. Stravinsky, left behind in Switzerland, began to understand that staging Les Noces villageoises would have to be postponed until after the war.
His relationship with Diaghilev started to cool. He thus became involved in other projects that were commissioned or which had a reasonable prospect of being paid and performed. Meanwhile, Les Noces villageoises was shelved. In composing Renard, for which he had secured a firm commission from the Princess Edmond de Polignac, Stravinsky immersed himself in the sounds of his cimbalom and the mocking folktales about the fox.
The theatrical form envisioned by the composer for Renard was notably similar to his earlier idea of staging Les. Noces as well as Histoire du soldat in , that is as a synthetic spectacle mixing musicians, dancers, clowns and acrobats on the stage. The syllables then acquired an additional value as independent sounds and durational units; they were no longer just elements of a verbal construction. Music in Les Noces was often said to be born of the phonetic sound.
It was during this trip to Italy that Stravinsky became close to Picasso; they spent much time together in Rome and in Naples, developing a lasting friendship that was meaningful for both artists and, in some ways, specifically for the further transformation of Les Noces. A new era in the compositional history of the work began in July, when Stravinsky and Diaghilev signed a contract for several pieces; Diaghilev now had the exclusive worldwide rights for productions of Les Noces villageoises for two years. He possibly even drafted the entire fourth tableau in short score.
Alexandra Danilova, Choura New York, , p. The separate pagination and the state of completeness of the fourth tableau in the Winterthur manuscript Prtc-W, discussed below, raise this possibility. He was working on Etude for pianola, and he was interested in the pianolisation of Les Noces villageoises. By early August, when he first had a concrete idea about the length of the entire work, and even before he had finished composing it, he was looking into how to fit the composition on pianola rolls. The work was finally moulded here as a rigid musical construction, a patchwork forged together by an iron hand: larger episodes were spliced to construct a montage of short blocks, juxtaposed, overlapped, inter-cut and firmly welded together.
The way that Prtc-W was compiled — it was not a through-written manuscript — evokes a parallel with the whole non-linear compositional process of Les Noces and its final structure: the manuscript is fragmentary and disjunctive; it consists of blocks of different materials, composed at various times between and , here inter-cut, stopped and returned. The blocks are different even in their physical appearance: compiled from an assortment of single-page and continuous summary sketches, written on paper of different sizes and quality, with different pens and pencils, only roughly sketched and in cleanly copied segments, the manuscript was assembled with the single aim of putting together the entire piece.
For that purpose Stravinsky gathered and reordered the previously composed sections, added those newly composed and made the connecting links, filling in whatever he felt necessary according to the proportions of the envisioned whole. By that time, the Swiss writer Charles-Ferdinand Ramuz had almost finished a ten-month job translating the work into French.
Only some instrumentation and textural details were left to complete. Stravinsky considered the composition finished. Les Noces villageoises was thus finally put together just four weeks before the Bolshevik coup in Russia. This peculiar coincidence appears to have been largely due to the Although the historical scope of the event could not leave any Russian expatriate cold, the composer had other immediate losses to deal with.
For Stravinsky the loss of Russia on a personal level had occurred long ago, even before the Great War. By the autumn of , he still had no major new work. Neither did he have an active publisher negotiations with J. Chester would begin only in To live up to his self-vision as the premier international composer, he had to get to the forefront again. It could be that he then realised that his major work since The Rite of Spring, the one which he had just almost completed, was still not right, that the concept of.
Les Noces was eventually cut on five rolls, four of which appeared in , with the fifth produced only in — Whatever the reason, in the winter of —19 Stravinsky began working on a new instrumentation of Les Noces villageoises for an ensemble of two cimbaloms, harmonium, pianola and percussion, that is the new version 4 see Figure 6. The draft of this version in full score FS-4 goes up to the third tableau, the longest of all the preliminary drafts in full score. FS-4 is meticulous and even includes careful drawings indicating the placement of the percussion instruments on stage see Figure 6. The connexions between music and cinema, the association of the sound of the pianola with silent film, and the non-diegetic relationship between music and the action on the screen intrigued the composer.
Thus, Diaghilev found it unacceptable: [O]ur advanced artists, however, paint on the canvas just like everyone else; they do not demolish the theatre in order to make something new. But this good fellow. Stravinsky, under the pretext of simplifying my task, leaves unoccupied the musicians that I have, and requires from me only four, but one of these four I need to search for in Honolulu, another in Budapest, the others God knows where!
Victory is achieved; no longer any need to fight against Mahler. Now, I would like to return to grand things. In addition, Stravinsky now had a publisher, J. Chester in London, whose conditions had to enter the negotiations as well. But it was not to be. Suddenly, Stravinsky had several commissions for compositions to be completed in , on which he needed to work simultaneously.
The composer clearly achieved what he wanted: he was back in the Parisian and London spotlights, and he was the centre of attention all over the world. He left Morges for France in April , ready to take a permanent place in the Parisian artistic landscape. The score of Les Noces had meanwhile remained untouched since the summer of The instrumentation was still not decided.
Under pressure from Kling, Stravinsky considered the. Long Branch, N. The all-night meeting when Stravinsky read through his new scores took place in Paris, at the apartment of Georges-Michel, a Parisian critic of note. Claude Tappolet, 3 vols Geneva, —92 , vol. Ansermet, letter to Stravinsky, 4 May , in ibid. His message to the composer was straightforward: forsake the odd and mechanical instruments similar to those in FS-4 and come up with some fresh ideas in a hurry. Kling did not receive the piano-vocal score until 23 May The new concept of instrumentation, however, was a drastic step towards the final transformation of Les Noces into an abstract, stripped-down work.
We have wind instruments, stringed instruments, percussion instruments, and the human voice — there is our material. From the actual use of these materials the form should arise. The rhetoric, though, is hard to reconcile with the history of Les Noces: its musical form was built in , but still almost six years later the composer was searching for its matter. Certain seeds of the sonorous idea though not as a rhetorical concept of matter of two contrasting sounds existed already in FS-1, with the percussive and the continuous sound colours playing against each other.
Throughout his work on Les Noces, Stravinsky searched for an appropriate embodiment of struck matter, whether in the guise of percussive strings, cimbalom, piano, harpsichord, two cimbaloms, or ultimately four pianos and percussion. He creates sound contrasts, build-up and decrease, not so much through changes in dynamics, which are scarce in the score, but rather through the volume, density and weight of his matter, that is, through the number of instruments and voices in any particular block of music, by the register used, and by the density of the contrapuntal layers in the musical texture.
What Stravinsky said about. The latter instrumentation is mentioned in Stravinsky and Craft, Expositions and Developments, p. Stravinsky came up with this instrumentation when he stayed at the house of Coco Chanel in Garches. See Stravinsky and Craft, Expositions and Developments, p. The piano is nothing but a utility instrument and it sounds right only as percussion.
Stravinsky, cable to Ansermet, 18 April , in Correspondance, ed. Tappolet, vol. Octet in the article quoted above also applies to his latest version of Les Noces: I have excluded from this work all sorts of nuances, which I have replaced by the play of these volumes. I have excluded all nuances between the forte and the piano; I have left only the forte and the piano. Along with the machine-like precision — surely a new defining quality of beauty at the time — other concepts central to the Parisian discourse on the modern arts were austerity and bare essence, contempt for affectation and richness of style, reverence of limitation and utmost simplicity.
Each structural block can be repeated exactly, or shifted in musical space to a different pitch or in time to a different beat. It can vary, expand or contract. Each block can be juxtaposed, superimposed or interspersed with other blocks, but it cannot develop into something different as a result of these transfigurations and interactions. In spite of this, Les Noces embodies a startling — if not paradoxical — duality of structural disjunction and coherence, abrupt juxtaposition and connectedness, the duality that converts the self-contained parts into an uninterrupted thrust from the first to the last note.
This sensibility enhanced his faculty in maintaining the structural control of the piece through the specific placement of musical blocks space and through the precise duration time. Stravinsky unplaited the melody into short melodic gestures, pitch collections, even single intervals the fourth and the minor seventh specifically. Stravinsky and Craft, Expositions and Developments, pp. Calculated according to the metronome markings in the score, the temporal proportion of the two parts deviates from the mathematical GS by only eight seconds.
On the level of each tableau, the GS is also consistently marked by a momentous musical section: the culmination Ray! Finally, in the fourth tableau, the GS falls in the midst of a brisk succession of climactic episodes reiterating the Mitusov melody in full and bringing the return of the melodic gesture that opened the composition. He used these skills in powerful ways to transform any idea or verbal expression that came his way from the outside world into a compositional impulse or technique. He needed these external impulses to feed his imagination.
The creative artists at work in contemporary Paris not only fed his ambitions and imagination socially and artistically, but also provided him with a wellarticulated rhetoric with which to create his new identity. An Autobiography, p.
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Guillaume Apollinaire, Apollinaire on Art, ed. Leroy C. Breunig, trans. Susan Suleiman New York,  , p. Pasler, pp. As he worked on Les Noces, Stravinsky became an essential part of the vital and fluid Parisian artistic scene. His individual myth-creation was successful because he recognised the aspirations of the Parisian artists and their own myths.
As much as he contributed to shaping the aesthetics and consciousness of the Parisian artists, however, he was also shaped by them. The symbiotic relationships that ensued required a thorough re-examination of his own initial vision of the Russian wedding ritual and how it needed to evolve to fit his new identity, his temperament and his artistic convictions. In Les Noces, the rite of passage of his own making, Stravinsky was able to tap into the symbolic powers of two quite different phenomena: the old. Figure 1. Russian village ritual and the aggressively modern Parisian aesthetic.
Whether presented as a choreographed and staged ballet or as a strictly concert divertissement-cantata, it retains the same vitality and power the composer had envisioned. Figure 3. The second version of Les Noces, FS-2b. Long bars, slow tempo, and the short opening melody are characteristic of version 2. The first version of Les Noces, FS-1, reproduced here for the first time.
Figure 5. The third version of Les Noces, FS-3c. The fourth version of Les Noces, FS The sequence of the sources in this list suggests their basic filiation, although most sources contain layers of revisions and annotations written at various times. Single-page musical sketches and short rough drafts of episodes for all versions; about pp.
First draft of first tableau up to  in particell, versions 1—3; lead and mauve pencils, 13 pp. In addition, two pages are filled later with instrumental sketches in black ink for the third tableau. Vellum folder is hand-painted by Stravinsky. Lehman Deposit, no accession no. Carbon copy of the first 13 pp. Rough draft in full score of a new opening episode, version 2; lead pencil with a carbon copy, 1 p.
Rough draft in full score of a new opening episode, version 2; 2 pp. Fair copy in calligraphic script, full score of the first tableau up to , version 3; black and red ink French translation , 21 pp. Les Noces hand-made notebook no. Entire work, version 3, in sketches first, second and third tableaux and continuous draft fourth tableau , many sections in particell; lead and mauve pencils, black, red and green ink, pp.
WSB, Rychenberg-Stiftung. First continuous draft of the entire work in piano-vocal score, worked from Prtc-W; black ink, French text in red ink and lead pencil, pp. The manuscript contains some indications for instrumentation for both versions 3 and 4. Fair copy in full score of version 4, first and second tableaux; black and red ink, 89 pp.
Final fair copy of piano-vocal score; black and red ink, pp. Worked from VS-1; completed in May BL, Chester Music Loan First proof of piano-vocal score; autograph corrections and annotations by Stravinsky and Nijinska? January Second proof of piano-vocal score without any titles; autograph annotations by Stravinsky. February Third proof of piano-vocal score, pp. April Fourth proof of piano-vocal score, pp. Chester; all tableau titles and the dedication engraved as corrected in Prfs Both corrections are incorporated into PR The tableau titles and dedication are as engraved in Prfs-4a, i.
Cary, accession no. PMC Printed piano-vocal score, pp. The date printed on p. The edition was printed in May dated in copyright notice. Chester Ltd. Final fair copy of the entire instrumental score, version 5; black ink, pp. Copy of IS-5b, version 5; black ink, not paginated. April—May May Sketches for pianolisation; lead pencil, 25 pp. Cary , accession no. Printed full score, pp. English translation and phonetic transliteration of the Russian text by Gregg Smith; further entries by Robert Craft.
Stravinsky copy of PR-2, with autograph annotations and conducting marks. Nijinska holds her own today in two versions of Noces. The work disappeared from the repertory between and when Frederick Ashton, then Artistic Director of the Royal Ballet, invited Nijinska to stage it for his company in London. But the architecture and relationships between music and movement remain broadly similar across the two performance traditions. The quest for stability is a major feature of the choreography as well as of the music, and no more obviously than in spatial features.
Only the front part of the stage is visible. There is one window in the curtain behind the dancers and it is off-centre. Immediately we see asymmetries in terms of size of groups, placement of groups and curtain design. Later, both groups merge by moving sideways into each other, clustering under the window, which has become a kind of off-centre reference point. Finally, there is a moment of huge tension: linked together, the entire ensemble moves to real stage centre, which is stressed for the first time, to form the first volcanic. For, although when he was writing the work, Stravinsky would have had concert performance in mind, quite as much as theatrical, the initial conception of the score was as a collaboration with choreography.
The music has inspired new choreographic treatments with increasing frequency over the years. This is a work about an arranged peasant wedding, hardly the occasion for rejoicing. The neoclassical epithet is appropriate because, anticipating Balanchine, Nijinska uses pointe work and offers a reflection upon the medium of dance — movement and the presentation and reworking of a limited number of movement motifs — rather than on the classical model of narrative through dance.
Lydia Lopokova, Dancing Times, February , p. An Autobiography London, , p. Les Noces was created at a time when choreographers were beginning to experiment with rhythmic autonomy rather than visualisation of music. The music critic Boris de Schloezer welcomed the new style: Music is at the root of things, but the dance that takes inspiration from it, becomes imbued with it, suddenly detaches itself in order to develop according to its own terms. There is an intimate correlation between dance and music, but not at the level of particularity or detail. This absence of parallelism which sometimes even leads to a kind of discordance, to effects of contradiction, confuses many people who are used to the slavish translation of music through gesture and pose.
Nevertheless, there is a link here between the two elements, and it is rhythm that creates it… De Schloezer asks for even more independence than Nijinska gives him: But over the rhythmic foundation supplied by the music, Nijinska builds her movement construction with a freedom that I would only fault for not reaching its maximum potential. Indeed, the only criticism that I can make of the choreographer is that in a few instances she succumbs to the temptation of literal translation.
The flow barely got going until the mid-twentieth century, probably because of the difficulties of the score for 7. Then, in the s and more particularly in the s, we see an acceleration in the rate of new productions at least thirty-one since , roughly matching the number of new productions of The Firebird and Petrushka of the same period, and no fewer than four in It helps, of course, that the score is now available in a range of recordings.
In taking on the dual challenges of music and marriage as institution, choreographers have enabled us to hear the score in many different ways, reinvigorating it with different treatments. Two settings have done the rounds of the international repertory, that is, where the Nijinska has not already been used. They are the excellent Jerome Robbins Noces , pointing up the contrast between lightheartedness and tragedy — and with the four pianos on stage when this version was premiered — and the Hollywoodexpressionist version by Jiri Kylian , in which bride and groom are madly in love from the start.
On a few occasions, choreographers have shifted the meaning of the Stravinsky score by adding music. De Keersmaeker is a choreographer who, like Nijinska, engages with the rhythmic detail of the score and gave full analyses of the rhythmic structure to her dancers. Traditionalists may disapprove; some choreographers at least want to hear their Stravinsky that way.
Yet we need to admit that, whatever choreographers create, they will make us hear the music differently from in concert, as some moments are emphasised more, some less by the dance, as the movement releases or selects particular qualities of sound for our attention, and as the choreographer might even give us a modified sense of large. It remains to be seen, too, how the fresh nuances within a new edition of the score will have an impact on the Les Noces choreographies of the future and on our understanding of those already in the repertoire.
For both music and dance, the work has never been more alive. The guiding principle of the new edition of Les Noces is to supply a performance score of the composition edited along scholarly lines. Putting this principle into practice is, however, a formidable challenge. Yet because Stravinsky completed the piano-vocal score prior to deciding on the final instrumental ensemble, let alone actually writing the instrumental score, it is not possible to identify a single principal source. The instrumental parts derive from the final fair copy of the instrumental score, IS-5b see Figure 8.
Because Stravinsky refined details for instance, in terms of articulation and dynamics during the proofing stages — presumably often as a result of the ongoing rehearsals — and continued to discover errors after publication, these sources cannot by themselves supply a satisfactory reading for a new edition. Departures from the texts of the two principal sources are recorded in the Critical Commentary, enabling readers to deduce and reconstruct the content of the sources on which this edition is founded. Only obvious misprints and errors are corrected tacitly.
Not all the proof copies, for instance, played a part in the transmission of corrections to the published vocal and full scores. Some proofs and preparatory materials were not returned to the publisher but were retained for rehearsal or other purposes, accumulating layers of corrections, amendments and annotations made during or after the production of a later proof or indeed even after the publication of the first editions. Other preparatory materials may have been returned to Stravinsky after having been processed by the publisher, similarly accruing later annotations and amendments.
Stravinsky completed the principal source for the vocal parts, the final fair copy of the piano-vocal score, VS-2, in May PR-1 was engraved from this manuscript. It is not clear what role the extant copy of the second proof, Prf-2, played in the production chain. Some of the autograph corrections inscribed in Prf-2 are not transmitted to the first edition of the vocal score, PR-1, and, conversely, many corrections and alterations that were transmitted through the proofing process to PR-1 are not evident in Prf The correspondence between Otto Kling, the Director of J.
Chester, and Stravinsky reveals that Kling sent Stravinsky at least two copies of the second proof. The third proof of the vocal score, pages of which are. See Kling, letters to Stravinsky, 14 and 25 February Robert Craft, 3 vols New York, —85 , vol. Kling received this from Stravinsky on 19 April and replied saying that he would do all that was necessary to engrave these two titles and dedication, noting that the other corrections were minimal and that they would be done with care.
Another proof of the vocal score, Prf-4b, can be dated to the time of the fourth proof, but it is bound with the score of the entire work in an earlier proofing stage. Most of the corrections in Prf-4b are not transmitted to the published vocal score, suggesting that Stravinsky might have retained this copy; and accordingly Prf-4b, like Prf-1, stands outside a linear filiation of the sources. Stravinsky was dismayed by the errors in the printed pianovocal score, PR The piano-vocal score was printed by 29 May An undated and incomplete first rough draft of the instrumental parts, InS-5a, paved the way for the final fair copy of the instrumental score without vocal parts ,.
InS-5b, completed on 5 May in Monte Carlo. Jacob InS-5c. It is probable that this copy was sent to Stravinsky and subsequently to the publisher for engraving. On 4 September Stravinsky asked Kling to implement some changes to the percussion ensemble. On 6 September , Kling sent Stravinsky a proof of the final pages, from  to the end, and assured him that these revisions had been made. Stravinsky continued correcting proofs now lost during October In the decades since its first publication, PR-2 has been reprinted several times. The immediate predecessor of the present new edition is dated and constitutes a reprint of PR-2 with a few minor amendments and corrections.
The Critical Commentary records significant departures from the texts. Kling, letter to Stravinsky, 16 May Kling, letter to Stravinsky, 17 July Kling, letter to Stravinsky, 26 March Stravinsky, letter to Kling, 6 May Kling, letter to Stravinsky, 9 May Kling, letter to Stravinsky, 29 May See Kling, letter to Stravinsky, 26 March Stravinsky, letter to Kling, 4 September These clearly come to light in FS-5d, which juxtaposes the printed vocal parts with the instrumental score as copied by Roy.
The discrepancies have thus been studied on a case-by-case basis, with reference not only to the principal sources but also to the solutions or lack thereof in PR This is not to fudge the issue. For this reason, he sometimes indicated different time signatures for parallel passages and constantly revised his time signatures on scores used for rehearsal purposes, such as FS-5d, PR-2a and PR-2b. Tables 2 and 3 indicate an example of the interplay between verbal stress and musical metre. It also reports meaningful variants in other sources.
Many cautionary accidentals for instance, cancelling an accidental from a previous bar have been inserted tacitly, without a remark in the Critical Commentary. Indisputable errors have also been corrected without comment. The notation has been brought into line with modern practice where possible. Stravinsky, in order to avoid ledger lines in his piano notation, sometimes notated pitches played by the right hand on the left-hand stave, and vice versa.
The beaming of notational groups in the vocal parts follows the syllabic divisions of the Russian text. Where the syllabic divisions of the Russian and French texts are identical, the corresponding slurs are above or below the stave according to notational convention. Where the syllabic divisions differ, the slurs for the Russian text are above the stave, those for the French, below. The metrical divisions occasionally given above the system in the present edition are annotated by Stravinsky in one of his conducting scores, PR-2b, which give an insight into his conducting practice and his interpretations of his own metrical patterns.
As with some other scores by Stravinsky of the time, dynamics are sparse in the principal sources. Other editorial dynamics are merely suggestions, leaving all decisions regarding their use to the discretion of the performers. All these are inserted tacitly, without square brackets, but all are noted in the Critical Commentary. Care has been taken, however, to leave sufficient space for performers to decide on their own dynamic interpretation. The syllables affected by stress or metric grouping in Table 2 are shown in bold capital letters. Figure 7. Autograph fair copy of the pianovocal score, VS-2, the main source for the vocal parts in the present edition.
Autograph fair copy of the instrumental parts, Ins-5b, the main source for the instrumental parts in the present edition. Figure 9. Roy prepared a new copy of the instrumental parts from InS-5c and pasted over the vocal parts cut out from PR P1, P2, P3, P4 Timb. InS-5b: etc. InS-5b: rhythm is ; here the rhythm replicates that of the piano part in VS-2; also by analogy with bar InS-5b: RH part from bar chord 1 to chord 1 erroneously notated an octave lower, owing to missing ottava.
InS-5b: no footnote; here as in PR-2, where it is referenced to the T. PR alto chorus doubles soprano chorus from bar note 1 to bar note 4 and then takes the D in the divided soprano chorus no divided soprano chorus in PR-2 ; here as in VS-2, PR In PR-2b, IS deletes the alto chorus part from bar to bar note 5 but does not restore the divided soprano chorus in bar note 5. Here as in VS-2, PR S, T, P1, P3. Here as in PR-2a IS annotation. P1, P2, P3, P4. Broken bar line from InS-5b, PR InS-5b: no p sub.
In InS-5b, this part has been crossed out. InS-5b: no music for Tmb. Conducting indication in PR-2b is. InS-5b: inconsistent application of to paired chords beamed over bar line; here consistently applied in accordance with pattern established in bars — InS-5b: no poco a poco cresc.
VS no cresc. InS-5b: above P1 plausibly applies to entire system; thus here to all voices continuing into third tableau Triang. T with P1. Roy copied this erroneously to the triangle stave in FS-5d, in which source IS has deleted the instruction and re-written it adjacent to the C. PR-2b: large from beginning of bar to the beginning of bar , where p is given IS annotations ; the size and position of these dynamic markings suggest that they apply to the whole score.
The final figure of bar is circled and a marginal note indicates:. All IS annotations. IS clearly toyed with the idea of taking the bass solo part of bars — note 3 down an octave, perhaps for a specific soloist or as an ossia. Since the word is given the durational value of a quaver, this vowel ought to be pronounced.
Notes 3 and 4 are a later insertion and consequently the bar does not add up metrically. PR-2 corrects this as:. InS-5b: no p; here as in PR-2b IS annotation , where its size and position indicate that it applies to the whole score. The omission of all four pianos in the chord struck in synchronisation with the cloche and crotales in bars , et seq. It seems logical to suggest, then, that Stravinsky altered the instrumentation, possibly as the result of the rehearsal process, after Jacob and Roy had completed making their copies.
InS-5b: extension dashes after each indication. Dashes omitted in present edition. The difference may be demonstrated by the pronunciation of the Russian unstressed i, which is always longer in singing, and which is consequently transliterated here as ee.
To this end, we have designed transliteration procedures that do not entirely conform to any specific existing model; though we have employed some elements of various known transliteration systems, we have combined and modified them to suit our purpose. As always, however, consultation with a specialist in Russian diction or a native speaker is highly desirable, since, despite our efforts, certain sounds can only be fully grasped aurally. The table below explains our transliteration of those vowels and consonants that are pronounced differently in English.
They are listed in the order of the Roman alphabet with examples of sounds in English that convey the desired Russian equivalents as closely as possible. The Russian orthography and punctuation in VS-2 have been altered so that they conform to current standards. The transliteration of Russian text is always a demanding task, since no single existing system can fit different purposes satisfactorily. Stravinsky clearly stated that he preferred Russian as the language for the performance of Les Noces,.
As e in sEt. For use after soft consonants indicated by an apostrophe, see Nota bene in Additional symbols. No exact equivalent. As ya in YArd. As ye in YEllow. As yo in YOga. A sign for a mid-central neutral vowel, used for the unstressed vowels a and o; its sound is between a and o, close to o in mOther or to a in sofA. Softness sign; used to soften the preceding consonant and to allow a short glide of the following vowel to be heard, as n in News or t in Tune.
Nota bene: after the softness sign, the Russian e sounds similar to e in yEsterday, but with a shortened and almost imperceptible glide. The same principle applies to ya, ye, yo, and yu after the softness sign. French text The French text of Les Noces is a careful adaptation of the Russian, rather than a direct translation, undertaken by Charles-Ferdinand Ramuz in close collaboration with the composer.
The French text in the present edition corresponds to that in VS-2, with four provisos. In the first place, punctuation has been added where required even though Ramuz, while proofreading, indicated that he liked the lack of punctuation and left the text uncorrected intentionally. Then, where there is a discrepancy between the text in VS-2 and that in PR-1, the text from PR-1 has been given with a remark in the Critical Commentary , which almost certainly reflects later changes made by Ramuz. The fourth point concerns the unstressed. In the present edition, an apostrophe generally replaces a mute syllable where the next word begins with a consonant, but not if the ensuing word begins with a vowel.
Finally, a remark on the notation. Stravinsky sometimes had to rewrite the melody of the vocal parts in order to accommodate the French text. In this edition, any notes that belong only to the French text are cue-sized. Stravinsky liked this placement of the performers. Quatre parties de Piano 2. Timbales au nombre de quatre 3. Tambour de basque, Triangle, Cymbale 5. Grosse-caisse et Cymbales.